Good Hope, Heartlands, and Solihull Eye Clinics

Uveitis...some links

David Kinshuck

Uveitis...some links

What is uveitis?


Obesity and diet and vitamin D

  • This probably increases autoimmune disease CMLS16    Increasing asthma   psoriasis   rheumatoid arthritis
  • statins reduce uveitis, Eye18 and DK believes this is due to the benefit of a low cholseterol, so it is very likely a low cholesterol diet will be helpful (whole grains, pulses, vegetables, fish, no processed meat or transfats, minimal red meat, minimal saturated fat or sugar).
  • Vtiamin D: This may contriubte. It contributes to related conditions: asthma   asthma asthma   rheumatoid arthritis



Types of uveitis


Onset etc

  • acute/chronic (several attacks over 3 months is usually a flare up of chronic)
  • acute < 3 months
  • chronic >3 months
  • ?related to CMV
    ' Our results indicate that CMV is a major cause of AU in Thailand and show that FHUS can be caused by both CMV and Rubella virus'.

Acute uveitis..acute anterior uveitis

  • leaflet PDF    Anterior_Uveitis   
  • hypopyons: generally HLA B27 or Bechets
  • acute: redness around cornea
  • symptoms : red pain photophobia blurred vision floaters, reduced vision 
  • CMV virus OII 13 :
  • genes IOVS 20  amyloid Eye 20
  • viral anterior uveitis review CEO 19
    • "A viral aetiology should be suspected when anterior uveitis is accompanied by ocular hypertension, diffuse stellate keratic precipitates or the presence of iris atrophy. The most common viruses associated with anterior uveitis include herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus and rubella virus. They may present as the following: Firstly, granulomatous cluster of small and medium-sized keratic precipitates in Arlt's triangle, with or without corneal scars, suggestive of herpes simplex or varicella-zoster virus infection.
    • Secondly, Posner-Schlossman syndrome with few medium-sized keratic precipitates, minimal anterior chamber cells and extremely high intraocular pressure; this is mainly associated with cytomegalovirus.
    • Thirdly, Fuchs uveitis syndrome, with fine stellate keratic precipitates diffusely distributed over the corneal endothelium, with diffuse iris stromal atrophy but without posterior synechiae, is associated mainly with rubella or cytomegalovirus infection. In rubella, the onset is in the second to third decade. It presents with posterior subcapsular cataract, may have iris heterochromia and often develops vitritis without macular oedema.
    • Cytomegalovirus affects predominantly Asian males in the fifth to seventh decade, the keratic precipitates may be pigmented or appear in coin-like pattern or develop nodular endothelial lesions, but rarely vitritis. Eyes with cytomegalovirus tend to have lower endothelial cell counts than the fellow eye. As their ocular manifestations are variable and may overlap considerably, viral AU can pose a diagnostic dilemma. Thus, quantitative polymerase chain reaction or Goldmann-Witmer coefficient assay from aqueous humour samples are preferred to confirm the aetiology and determine the disease severity as this impacts the treatment."

This may be due to

HLA B27 uveitis

  • acute; hypopyon often; settles with treatment
  • accounts for 50% of acute anterior uveitis (AAU)
  • ankylosing spondylitis/reactive/reiters/enteropathic/?psoriatic
  • sulphslazine may help prevent attacks NLM20

Treatment protocol acute anterior uveitis

  1. Cyclopentolate drops 1% twice daily for 1 week, then
  2. Cyclopentolate drops 1% at night for 1 week, then stop
  3. dexamethasone drops hourly for            hours
  4. dexamethasone drops 2 hourly for         days
  5. dexamethasone drops 4 times a day for 1  week
  6. dexamethasone drops 3 times a day for 1  week
  7. dexamethasone drops 2 times a day for 1  week
  8. dexamethasone drops once a day   for 1 week
  9. then stop dexamethasone
  10. note Cyclopentolate...
    • halves the pain, but blurs sight (poor near vision)
    • prevents the pupil sticking (this is very important)
    • twice a day when eye painful, only at night when no ache
    • not safe/legal to drive when used twice a day in most patients, but safe to drive during the day if used at night
  11. note dexamethasone drops are very important but there are problems; it contributes to cataracts;
  12. they may cause glaucoma..if continues more that 2 weeks an eye pressure check (at optometrist ?) would be helpful
  13. stop smoking as it increases uveitis by 400% : (20% a cigarette; electronic cigarettes much, much safer)
  14. vitamin D supplements (eg multivitamins)
  15. Betnesol 4mg/ml (0.5 or 1ml) & mydricaine no 2    0.3ml
  16. or dexamethasone 3.3 mg/ 1 ml & mydricaine no 2    0.5ml


  • Maxidex      hourly, attend Eye Centre A/E
  • 20% may become chronic
  • linked to vitamin d levels 2016

less often, CMV Eye 2012

  • "10 CMV-positive patients, four had endothelialitis, two had Posner–Schlossman syndrome, and one Fuchs heterochromic uveitis syndrome (FHUS). Five out of 21 (24%) samples tested by GWC for Rubella virus were positive, three of which exhibited clinical features of FHUS."
  • Tattoos, particularly with none-recommended inks, may precipitate uveitis.

Signs (from Ophthalmology Times, Dr Margolis)

  • hypopyon
    • anterior uveitis that develops after surgery or when the cause is infectious
    • infectious
    • Behçet's disease
    • herpetic
    • HLA B27-related.
  • KP
    • above the midline infection with possible including HSV, VZV, and CMV
  • children
    • Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is by far the most common cause of anterior uveitis
    • idiopathic
    • Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) ranks third
    • others rare.
  • adult
    • Idiopathic disease followed in descending frequency by
    • HLA B27
    • HSV and VZV
    • trauma.
    • others rare.
  • other features
    • episodic or chronic
    • unilateral, bilateral, or
    • bilateral but present in one eye at a time
    • distinct skin rash suggests syphilis
    • heterochromia indicates iris atrophy
    • VZV or Fuch’s heterochromic cyclitis.
    • Band keratopathy in a child is consistent with JI or VZV in adults, although it can also be a feature of any chronic uveitis.
    • Lacrimal gland enlargement or conjunctival granuloma are signs of sarcoidosis
    • Acutely elevated IOP suggests infectious
    • corneal sensitivity REDUCED...herpetic
    • Slit-lamp findings that are helpful for establishing the diagnosis include hypopyon, keratic precipitates (KP) above the midline, iris atrophy and nodules, and corneal disease.
    • Toxoplasmosis..posterior..also presents with KP above the midline
    • cornea  HSV and VZV.., stromal disease, loss of corneal sensation, and endothelialitis. Chronic pseudodendrites point to VZV.
    • granulomatous KP and iris nodules include infection, Behçet disease, sarcoidosis, and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome
    • iris atrophy primarily occurs with herpetic infection or rubella
    • Iris atrophy also Uveitis-Glaucoma-Hyphema (UGH) syndrome, but this diagnosis is usually obvious based on a poorly placed IOL
    • Pigmented cells in the anterior chamber suggest the presence of iris atrophy or its resolution, and may also be a sign of chronic disease
    • anterior chamber cells is largely used to grade disease severity and response to therapy
  • anterior uveitis and scleritis
    • includes VZV, HSV, tuberculosis, polyarteritis nodosa, relapsing polychondritis, or granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

General health


  • BJO 2015.... causing a chronic panuveitis


  • this increases the risk of acute anterior uveitis BJO 18


Acute macular neuroretinopathy

Acute retinal necrosis


  • exclude others...steroids if under fovea
  • see


  • vasculitis ..kittens



  • Italy  "Mucocutaneous features were the most frequent starting manifestations of BS, followed by eye inflammation. Erythema nodosum , arthritis/arthralgias, and central nervous system (CNS) signs ) were significantly over-represented in female patients, whereas male gender was associated with lower mean age at onset , higher frequency of pseudofollicular lesions, and uveitis , particularly for posterior segment involvement and panuveitis. Regarding the association between disease features, genital ulcers were negatively associated with uveitis and vascular involvement. Other negative associations were detected between uveitis and gastrointestinal involvement, pseudofolliculitis and CNS signs, vascular involvement and erythema nodosum. Logistic regression identified male gender and genital ulcers, respectively, with a higher and lower risk of developing major organ involvement. Our evaluations found that the disease had started mostly in the second and third decade with most severe features in the male gender, and that patients presenting with mucocutaneous manifestations were less prone to develop major organ involvement."
  • bilateral, mouth ulcer recurrent and painful/HLA B51, genital ulcers
  • Behçet's disease group         
  • Infliximab works Arch 2012,  very well BJO 2013
  • Need special funding
  • posterior uveitis, disc swelling,cme
  • focal vasculitis
  • brvo
  • severe rvo
  • posterior uveitis and inflammation
  • measure choroidal thickness
  • mouth ulcers!!!!!!
  • intravitreal infliximab in refractory uveitis in Behçet's disease
  • CNS disease BJO 18
  • Eye 19


  • radiating lesions, narrow vessels
  • look at choroid, thickened
  • looks like blobs in choroid
  • treat according to blobs..choroidal thickness
  • Retina 14  steroid implant
  • Multifocal widespread and peripapillary but not under fovea
  • Birdshot hla-a29.2
  • Symptoms
    • blurred vision ,floaters, nyctalopia, good vision, reduced contrast, reduced colour vision, glare and photopsia
  • findings
    • creamy yellow ovoid lesions, radially point to disc, no anterior uveitis, perhaps a little vitreous haze, exclude posterior synechiae, and anterior uveitis
    • FAA, Oct., hla-a29
  • Differential: Amppe serpiginous, sarcoid and lymphoma 
  • Treat
    • 20% don't need
    • 80% systemic Immunosuppression, Cyclosporine, methotrexate, mmf 
    • Rescue...steroids iv or oral, maintenance mycophenolate, tacrolimus, adalimumab Intraocular steroids Monitor
  •, and there is a national birdshot research network

Cataract surgery

  • Fuchs..good results high %
  • Worse..inflamed eyes at times of surgery
  • certain IOLs


  • Uveitis in children: often no symptoms 
  • either JIAU (see below) or none jiau....NJIAU
  • Ask the parent, Ask the child
  • Adenexae..sarcoid
  • Assess for complications 
  • Acuity
  • Eua rare
  • All child, paediatrician 
  • Treat early and more aggressive , see frequently,monitor for recurrences
  • Most.. Long term treatment 
  • Steroids, methotrexate, adalimumab. Infliximab...get antibodies 
  • Topical low grade, oral temporary,
  • Steroids..beware chickenpox,
  • Methotrexate.. 60% response, nausea 
  • Glaucoma ..severe
  • To see cells, magnification
  • in Brazil BJO 19 Anterior uveitis (46%), intermediate uveitis (26%), Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis (41%) and immune-mediated intermediate uveitis (25.6%), ocular toxoplasmosis (7.7%) and toxocariasis (5.1%) .


  • only immunosuppressed

Covid related


  • JIAU...see below
  • None jiau....NJIAU
    • bartonella... vasculitis ..kittens
    • Chronic ant eg Age 18 m, intermediate uveitis, flare++
    •, arthritis,ace higher in children even normal, anterior, panuveitis, vasculitis, nerve
    • Blau ? Early sarcoid, Nod2 gene
    • Tinu renal...
    • Hlab27
    • Behcet, vkh
    • Masquerade
    • rubella: salt and pepper fundus
    • Tb: eg large haemorrhages tb...white around edge; Check for tb with q gold
    • Toxo multifocal..common
    • VITAMIN D... Pars planitis, sarcoid, ms
    • Cvid...immunoglogulin screen 
    • Irvan
    • Vkh

CMV retinitis/acute retinal necrosis

  • Eye 2012   Solid organ transplantation 8 months after transplant, HIV infection
    "Pale necrotic retina with focal haemorrhage, in sectors of retina, spreading centrifugally along vascular arcades"  PCR diagnosis. Treat Eye 2012
  • very long interval after initial onset
  • Cmv only immunosuppressed
  • Case BMT: Hodgkin's lymphoma immunosuppression, cmv lots of haemorrhages, A few cells pc, AC, vit, Valganciclovir and intravitreous foscarnet

Chronic anterior

  • HSV/sarcoid/syphilis

Coeliac disease    

Cystoid Macula oedema

  • Fingolomid 2% cme  (MS treatment) 2020


Drug induced

  • intravenous biphosphonates
  • etanercept


Epstein-Barr Uveitis


FUS (Fuchs heterochromic uveitis syndrome)


'No xalatan if aphakic, or broken capsule' (not all agree)


Graft versus host disease

  • vasculitis like picture see



HIV infection

  • types of uveitis CEO 14
  • Hiv microangiopathy: Cotton wool spots hiv virus and retinal haemorrhage s, discharge patient. See anterior chamber before dilation. Check ALL periphery fully dilated
  • Screen all low cd4 hiv
  • Case hiv immunosuppression
    Low cd4: Area of retinitis, near disc urgent, periphery not urgent, cmv, valganciclovir after months maintenance dose later stop, also intravitreous foscarnet
  • Case60y hiv: Previous toxoplasmosis
    Reactivation at edge and other places; cotrimoxazole, 960 bd had AC and vitreous activity  if not immunosuppressed add systemic steroids


HTLV-1-associated uveitis


  • BJO 18
  • HTLV-1-associated uveitis

Immunosupresison consideration

when using DMARDs (disease modiifying anti-rheumatic drugs)   EyeNews 15

  • rapid or upward change in blood test results (haematology and biochemistry)
  • no live vaccines
  • drug interactions
  • pregnancy..not really safe
  • document toxicity
  • side effects in BNF
  • DMARD booklet
  • self-managment
  • education programme
  • measure outcome
  • MUST trial...systemic versus fluocinole implant AJO 15   OPH 15
    • Implant..more cataract..most, glaucoma.. 30%
    • Systemic treatment...more diabetes, bone problems, etc
    • Implant..better control
    • Quality of life no difference
    • implant: use if unilateral
  • If systemic not working Methotrexate versus mycophenolate=Cellcept trial Methot..slightly superior
  • Viral retinitis and steroids injection
  • Problems can arise after months
  • Cmv 76%..should have given antiviral agent

Plan treatment if immunosuppresion needed

  • systemic steroids
  • first immunoassay for syphylis and tb and hiv treatment
  • assess
  • See patient
    1. How severe
    2. how quickly it responds /came
    3. immunocompetent y,n,
    4. masquerade..infection , malignant
  • If steroids dont work add second line agent
  • Cellcept or tacrolimus
    • second line agents
    • start to work 3 months
    • Both need regular blood tests moorfields pharmacy have a chart
  • if this does not work biologics
  • Slow taper steroids
  • Biologics
    • Infliximab
    • Bechets do very well
    • Etanercept does not work in uveitis
    • May reactivate tb
    • Rituximab fantastic
    • Need special funding
    • Monitoring
    • Safety
      • Clincial handbook of Immunosuppression in uveitis...moorfields
      • Patient getd sresults handbook to complete
    • Cost eg tacrolimus..usegeneric drugs


Iris atrophy

  • Moxifloxacin


JIA (juvenile idiopathic arthritis)

  • no symptoms
  • Ana+ female, oligoarthitis 50% Hladrb1
  • arthritis first (1 year before)
  • +ANA, oligo JIA
  • JIA all children must be screen within 6 weeks and every 8 weeks for 6 months
  • Rituximab
  • Male: none white: Younger onset, posterior synechiae
  • Jia screening program, college website  


  • uveitis anterior and intermediate
  • test BJO 18  high risk cases
  • EJO19 All anatomical types of uveitis were found (four intermediate, three anterior, and three posterior uveitis); most were unilateral (n = 6; 85.7%), one granulomatous and two with synechiae. Peripheral retinal vasculitis was present in four patients. They all had a risk of exposure or extra-ophthalmological symptoms. Antibiotic and steroid treatment was rapidly effective in all patients. Four patients presented recurrences of uveitis, of whom two received a second antibiotic treatment, which is quite common in literature.



  • think of lymphoma in chronic uveitis OI14
  • Undulating rpe when no AMD... Barry
  • Hyper-reflective sub rpe infiltration
  • Hyper-reflective pre rpe infiltration
  • Hyper-reflective choroidal lesions

Macular Oedema


  • intermediate with macular oedema

Multifocal choroiditis

  • choroid OK!!
  • sub rpe space
  • myopic
  • female
  • overlaps with PIC, TB
  • thick choroid, cnv in young girl
  • serpiginous


50% severe hypertension

None Infectious Asian


Pars planitis


  • Control uveitis for 3 months; IV methylpred followed by short course of oral steroids

PIC Punctate inner choroidopathy

  • PIC Society
  • No cause known
  • look at choroid
  • CNV?
  • young myopic ladies
  • Multiple small lesions, posterior pole, no inflammatory cells, +/- serous detachments
  • Small or larger lesions, flickering lights, scotoma, blurred vision,
  • 2/3 no new lesions over 2y, 12% new lesions ,  1/3 cnv
  • Oct changes ..fluid in suprachoroidal space; also focal choroidal excavation, choroid becomes thickened. Generate choroidal thickness map
  • none cnv lesions may disappear
  • There is no inflammation generally. If there is a hint of inflammation think of...tb, syphilis, sympathetic, etc. Also think of lacquer crack Infection or inflammation
  • Treatment for CNV: Anti-vegf plus steroid, steroids and immunosuppression..adnan tufnail...not routine immunosuppression, needs about 3 injections, about 10 weeks between,
  • If pregnant.....avoid anti-VEGF first trimester, can give it third trimester, but only after full discussion
  • treat cnv and avoid Immunosuppression


  • Acute focal retininits, toxo, herpetic
  • uveitis bloods, ace, tb spot, syphyllis, hiv, lyme, toxo
  • severe: Rituximab Retina 18
  • unilateral, with macular oedema, once tb has ben excluded:
    • exclude tb with CXR and (at Good hope) interferon gamma tb test.  This does not exactly exclude tb but if the test is negative then immunosuppression is safer.
    • no steroid response: osardex once tb excluded
    • for steroid responders methotrexate 400 micrograms intravitreal
  • Arn, porn, none necrtoizing, focal retinitis ..all hertpetic
  • Cmv ac tap at presentation 
  • Familial medistarranean fever NLM20


AJO 19     "RV-associated uveitis and FUS are not exchangeable. Chronic anterior uveitis, vitritis, early development of cataract, and the absence of posterior synechiae and CME characterize RV-associated uveitis. Almost all FUS cases had documented intraocular RV infection, but only some of the patients with RV-associated uveitis presented with FUS."


  • Eye 19 diagnosis19
  • subacute/often bilateral/fine or granulomatous KP/choroidal granuloma/exudate around veins
  • SOBOE, tired
  • ACE, Ca++, urine,renal function, LFT, CXR
  • serpiginous, big black blob in vision
  • Sarcoid: mutton fat kps, white cuffs around vessels, lupus pernio,

Scleritis classification

  • scleritis page
  • Eye 14
  • episcleritis 
    • simple
    • nodular
  • scleritis
    • diffuse
      • anterior
      • posterior
    • nodular
      • necrotising
        • surgical
        • none-surgical
      •  none necrotising

Serpiginous multifocal

  • pcr  50% TB, 25% CMV OII14


  • Becoming more common. Consider in all cases, especially
  • panuveitis and optic neuritis
  • ask/test HIV, rash
  • Methotrexate Retina14
  • Eye 18   Ocular syphilis is increasing in the UK (the risk of ocular involvement is 1%). Most patients men who have sex with men; serological testing is important.


  • Tattoos, particulary with none-recommended inks, may precipitate uveitis. see 20


  • tubular interstitial nephritis and uveitis; 1% of AAU..sudden bilateral, young patients


To treat, read this paper. Eye 2012 

  • AC tap BJO19
  • 'Toxo... Lightbulb in fog'
  • traditional
    • pyrimethamine, sulphadiazine, folinic acid, (systemic steroids if sight threatened)...details Eye 2012 
  • intravitreal clandestine and dexamethasone
  • Secondary prophylaxis:  trimethoprim/sulphmethoxazole once every 3 days. see Eye 2012 
  • Case 1:   thick choroid, nsd, white area next to black scar
  • Case 2:  vitreous cells , given IVT, much worse  (needed vitreous biopsy)
  • treatment BJO 16
  • for acute infection
    • Septrin 160 mg/800 mg Tablets tice day (= 2 tablets twice daily) if not pregnant
    • prednisolone 40mg if..
      • if infection near the macular or threatening vision add prednisolone (about) 40mg a day, reducing the dose over 2 weeks (steroid use: standard precautions, keep away from chickenpox, diabetes and blood pressure checks, etc) see precautions
  • Treat not active toxo,  Problem is lots of recurrences ?long term treatment eg intravitrael, clincamycin and intravitreal steroid 
  • Bactrim only works while being used.
  • cotrimoxazole, clindamycin, atovaquone .., azithromycin 1,2'3'4 line
  • Toxo undercooked or cured meat.. 65% of source, 2/3 postnatal
  • Toxo treatment 'does not help'...rokhova, but Dihydrohidrazine, and other new treatments will help
  • Never give intravitreal steroid alone
  • Case 60y hiv
    Previous toxoplasmosis
    Reactivation at edge and other places cotrimoxazole, 960 bd.
    Had AC and vitreous activity, if not immunosuppressed add systemic steroids.
  • Case myeloid leukemia 62
    Shimmering vision very few cells, sheathed vessel and retinitis Iv acyclovir got worse, foscarnet, then AC tap toxoplasmosis, Azithromycin worked


  • TB excellent Eye 19   photos    anti tb treatment  EJO 20 
  • Eye 18  This is increasing in the UK, and even after treatment inflamation can continue.
  • BJO 2011
  • can be latent of active
  • Quantiferon interferon test, more specific than tspot Eye 18 
  • Tb hypersensitivity or granuloma if tested.
  • Multifocal or vasculitic, occlusive vasculitis. 
  • ? Do you treat eye steroid etc
  • Almost never in lungs
  • Difficult to decide to treat
  • Case:
    • unilateral vitritis and punched out lesions, swollen disc
    • quanitiferon tst
    • T spot blood test
  • Case 50y , Pakistan ..born
    • Vitritis, 6/18 and focal retinitis  ?Tb
      Tb screening cxr tuberculin t spot...same as interferon gamma
    • This case tb spot positive,
    • Pet scan active node, biopsied, pcr positive, steroids and tb treatment 
  • review
  • steroids are needed as inflammation can increase with treatment  Eye 2013
  • Methotrexate Retina14
  • Tb retinitis looks like macular serpiginous disease, sympathetic, vkh ,  or Birdshot
  • Tb ..may need 6 m tb treatment and after that can immunosuppress
  • TB
    • Scleritis
    • phlycten,
    • mutton fat uveitis etc
    • Uk Multifocal Choroiditis 
    • Conflent...ampiginous
    • Choroidal tubercules
    • Occlusive vasculitis, Eales like
    • Swollen disc
  • Differential
    • Include syph tb tests cxr tb spot
    • Pet scans for active nodes
  • Do well with att and steroids 

Pathway Eye 20

Uveitis but not non-granulomatous anterior uveitis non-granulomatous anterior uveitis
TB phenotype none-TB phenotype Poor response to drops or atypical Good response to topical treatment
  1. Choroidal granuloma
  2. Serpiginous
  3. Peripheral occlusive vasculitis
  4. Chronic  granulomatous anterior
Idiopathic ???TB Cause identified    
Interferon gamma release assay  No referral
  1. Positive or strong suspicion clinically or epidemiologically, refer to tb team for systemic evaluation
  2. Ct chest, pet
Decision to  treat

Negative referral to tb team




  • Eye 19
  • serous detachments..eptae=VKH (not CSR)
  • thick choroid on oct..and can use this to decide steroid dose
  • looks like CSR
  • VKH bilateral thick choroid
  • follow up for years, may get cnv
  • VKH classification 2014
  • Vkh exudative retinae, a year later vitelligo
  • Tattoos, particulary with none-recommended inks, may precipitate VKH-likeuveitis. see 20

White dot syndromes Eye News 2015

  • Birdshot
    • creamy yellow spots, like shotgun pellets
    • HLA-A29
  • serpiginous
    • snake like lesions from disc
  • Acute macular neuroretinopathy BJO 19
  • apmppe
    • leaves scars
    • whites spots, younger patients, prodromal illness, auditory symptoms, meningism, bowel, lymphadenopathy; self limiting
  • aibse acute idiopathic blind spot enlargement syndrome 
    • apd, disc not swollen, unilateral, fluctuates
  • azoor
    • acute zonal outer retinopathy
    • bilateral, intrusive photopsia, enlarged blind spot, later RPE depigmentation and bone spicules, later: differentiate from RP
    • Retina18   "symptoms and signs described by Gass,6 which included photopsias, persistent visual field loss, and potential visual acuity (VA) loss, with minimal or no fundus changes initially and with loss of one or more zones of outer retinal function. "
  • AAOR
    • acute annular outer retinopathy, retina can appear healthy
    • like azoor but damage seen years later
    • unilateral, APD, enlarged blind spot, prodromal viral illness, photopsia, 100 micron white spots that disappear, no scars unlike apmpee
    • JOI21
  • AMN
    • acute macular neuroretinopathy
    • scotoma
    • BJO 15 
    • new associations BJO16
  • MCP
    • bilateral inflammation creamy yellow lesions, vitreous cells and debris, cme, periphlebitis
  • PIC
    • fewer lesions centered around fovea, ?subset of MCP
  • Peripheral multifocal chorioretinitis
  • Progressive subretinal fibrosis and uveitis syndrome
  • Retinal pigment epitheliitis (Krill's disease)
    • distorted vision in young people after a viral infection
    • very small dark spots in outer retina, surrounded by yellow halo. Neurosensory fluid accumulation that resolves
  • Susac Retina16
  • Unilateral acute idiopathic maculopathy
    • recent flu-like illness, RPE disruption and central elevation, similar to Bests, vitreous sells, resolves may be leaving a Bulls eye lesion.

Blood tests in rheumatic dieases

  • Rhf +ve 75% rheumatoid arthritis and 10% healthy
  • CRP most specifiic ~70% for rheumatoid arthritis
  • antiphospholipid 33% SLE
  • HLA b27 90% ankylosing spondylitis
  • vasculitic screen (ANA, ENA, ANCA, ACE, CRP, ESR)


  • very helpful Eye 16
  • HLA b27 (acute anterior)
  • HLA B61 Birdshot
  • hypopyons: generally HLA B27 or Bechets
  • acute: redness around cornea
  • symptoms : red pain photophobia blurred vision floaters, reduced vision 
  • side
  • KPs, cells, flare, granulomatous KPs
  • flare >3+ hypopyon
  • angle new vessels
  • conjunctivitis
  • Herpetic only affects one eye
  • keratitis
  • scleritis
  • panuveitis
  • chorioretinitis
  • vitritis: vitreous haze = cells
  • retinal vasculitis
  • papillitis
  • secondary glaucoma
  • IOP >26
  • If HZV/shingles:
    • sometimes there is no rash
    • often IOP 50, treat, better, returns
  • cataract
  • posterior synechiae
  • band keratopathy
  • VA < 6/60
  • mouth ulcers
  • temperature >380
  • weight loss
  • gender
  • heterochromia
  • oligoarthritis
  • inflammatory back pain
  • chronic diarrhoea
  • deep vein thrombosis
  • erythematous skin plaques
  • itching
  • nail pitting
  • urethritis
  • coughing
  • hemoptysis
  • good response to NSAI
  • Mantoux >10mm
  • iris nodules
  • macular oedema
  • papulopustular rash
  • erythema nodosum
  • rectal bleeding
  • ANAs
  • sacroileitis
  • patergy
  • joint pain 
  • vitreous haemorrhage
  • Uveitis in children: often no symptoms 
  • chronic uveitis blood tests include: cANCA, pANCA, panca, tspot, cardilipin, toxplasma


Uveitic glaucoma

  • Fuchs fhc vessels cross angle , nodules on pupil margin, floaters,
  • Protglandins may not work 


high does steroids

  • cxr, tb quantiferon
  • lansoprazole 30mg
  • adcal d3 2 bd
  • alendronic acid with colecalciferol one a week


Some cases

  1. 66y female
    • Bilateral blurred floaters, right vitreous cells, and vitritis, and large retinal lesion
    • Got worse next day
    • Vitreous tap, arn suspected, foscarnet, maxidex, but his did not work, so azithromycin in case toxo...probably was toxo
    • Pcr negative..more retinitis
    • Declined biopsy vit,retina
    • Treatment stopped not much worse, agreed for biopsy,
    • udden rapidly progressing vitritis...often ARN: hsv hzv cmv
  2. 64y male
    • Left blurred, pain. 4 weeks
    • previously treated for TB and sarcoid for right vasculitis swollen disc, steroid granuloma, treated with steroids, recurrent anterior uveitis, right
    • Peripheral choroidal effusion, ?sclerits.
    • Got better with steroids orally
    • Was this sarcoid?
  3. 28y male
    • Uveitis bilateral anterior, left posterior, left disc swelling
    • Ffa papillitis phlebitis, peripheral retinitis
    • Had painful lumps on legs, mouth ulcers, epididymitis= bechet's
    • Negative interferon test..quantiferon (for TB), wr, etc
    • Prednisolone, azathiaprin
  4. 37y waiter Rumanian, left uveitis, hiv status negative.
    • Left eye lots of retinal exudate tap blood cxr: foscarnet valcicloiir, pcr neg Cmv +, wr positive, hiv + Doxycycline.. Got better= syphylis
  5. 40y Female asian
    • Bilateral ant post serous detachment, headaches
    • treatment: iv methypred cellsept
    • vkh diagnosed
    • Ace 75
    • Recurred: cellsept increased again, steroid,
    • Recurrent aau, thought to have been vkh,
    • Ace >100 is sarcoid, comes down with treatment, useful for monitoring
    • Ace high in all uveitis, but 75 is not sarcoid
  6. Case 40 y lady
    • Recent blurred and photopsia
    • Lots of phlebitis...multifocal retina...icg showed birdshot
    • mycophenylate started; will add tacrolimus if response poor
  7. Case
    • ffa leopard spots, cant see in dark
    • Shallow detachment 
    • Bloods syphilis tb negative
    • .?lymphoma
  8. Case
    • Not vkh, not typical birdshot, ? Ipcvcnv polyps
    • Csr? ?eplerenone
  9. Case
    • Tired,memory,various problems, ex alcohol,
    • Hep bc, hiv, ebvcmv lyme syphylis
    • Leopard spots..uveal effusion,nh lymph,csr, diffuse mela..., 
    • Silver poisoning 
  10. Case
    • Multiple retinal aneurysms, ?coats
    • Treatment ..laser to ischaemic zones and may be antivegf
    • Laser whilst not leaking too much, may be antivegf first 
  11. Case
    • Melanoma treated with pembrolizumab, melanoma associated retinopathy
    • Retina autoantibodies 
    • Retinitis and vitritis and reduced sight,ac signs of fhc,
    • pigmentation of retina And later cnv = Mar retinopathy 
  12. Case
    • Blurred sight bmt, (=bone marrow transplant)
    • Retina lots haemorrhages, cws
    • Hsv, cmv, hzv, systemic steroids, ? Bmt retinopathy 
  13. Case
    • 74 lady
    • tia symptoms, breast ca metastasis
    • Recent bellspalsy
    • Left panuveitis and secondary glaucoma
    • 2 d later white lesions periphery
    • arn/ (acute retinal necrosis)
    • treated: Iv acyclovir, vit tap iv gancyclovir,
    • steroids..not at very beginning
    • then valacyclovir
    • Later foscarnet x 3 ..given weekly
    • Confirmed Resistant hzv...thymidine kinase resistance 
    • Result...acyclovir resistant hzv acute retinal necrosis
    • Foscarnet not oral and toxic intravenous, OK intravitreal
    • Department liaised with moorfields, parvesio
  14. Case
    • 74y
    • Optic atrophy cupped with shunt and a few haemorrhages
    • Optos ..lots of leakages, ffa, nve, masses of peripheral none perfusion
    • Bilateral prp and glaucona rx
    • optos useful to demonstrate peripheral retina)
  15. Case
    • 2013 left strvo
    • 2015 a second strvo
    • Cmo, lucenti sx 4
    • Localised laser and peripheral
    • 2016 recurrent vitreous haemorrhages
    • optos Ffa identified more areas of none perfusion then lasered
  16. Case
    • Rvo,  5 injections, had a lot of ischaemia but this improved without laser
    • Suggest widefield ffa For all vascular
    • Amd only not widefield 
  17. Case 17-19 aflibercept deposits
    • Aflibercept brvo 63 m, 
    • Seagull like floaters Seen on red free
    • On posterior vitreous face, white quiet eye
  18. Case
    • Wet armd aflibercept, 
    • Refractile floaters in posterior vitreous face
  19. Case
    • Anterior vitreous floaters, again after aflibercept 
  20. Case
    • 11 y f
    • Difficult seeing blackboard 
    • 4 m loss of sight both, 6/36 both
    • Macular scars bilaterally
    • Oct...scarred cnv...,
    • Family history bests, treated with antiVEGF both, one eye did not improve, one did
    • Bests, Best vitelliform macular dystrophy,
    • Best 1. Gene
    • Egg yolk lesion Eog to diagnose
  21. Case
    • 7y f
    • Bilateral cnv, treated as bests, in family..edts etc7
  22. Case
    • 20y male, known bests,  presented with cnv
    • Bests...more cnv with trauma
  23. Case
    • 60y f dm...not known diabetic 
    • Presented with corneal abscess and hypopyon , pain free, other eye fine
    • Cef and gent, iop 40
    • Other eye...hba1c 140, proliferative retinopathy
    • ...always look at other eye! 
  24. Case BMT
    Hodgkin's lymphoma immunosuppression, cmv lots of haemorrhages. A few cells pc , AC, vit, Valganciclovir and intravitreous foscarnet

  25. Case hiv immunosuppression
    Low cd4
    Area of retinitis, near disc.... urgent, periphery not urgent, cmv, valganciclovir after months maintenance dose later stop, also intravitreous foscarnet

  26. Case 60y hiv
    Previous toxoplasmosis
    Reactivation at edge and other places cotrimoxazole, 960 bd.
    Had AC and vitreous activity, if not immunosuppressed add systemic steroids.